A severely injured person is at risk for trauma – a condition that gradually worsens and can be described as a “decline in life force”.
First aid can reduce the development of trauma, if the ability is well identified in a timely manner. In a fully developed trauma, minimal first aid can be given, but it is still important until the victim is taken to a medical facility.
In medical terminology, ‘shock’ does not mean an emotional disturbance, but a physical condition – the failure of the heart to provide adequate blood circulation to all parts of the body. It is usually caused by loss of blood after severe injuries.
When there is severe bleeding, the body’s blood volume decreases, the heart rate decreases and the tissues do not get enough oxygen and other nutrients. In particular, the centers of the brain that regulate respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure no longer function adequately. Hence a vicious cycle is in motion.
Types of shocks
The following are the types of conditions that can cause different types of trauma:
Also known as ‘blood shock’. This is the most common form of severe trauma caused by blood loss, as in burns / bruises. Bleeding can be internal or external. If the person is dehydrated or sweating profusely, it can hasten the onset of trauma. This is usually the case if a burn / bruise occurs in a workplace with a high temperature.
Chemistry Heart attack
Also known as ‘heart attack’. The result is that the heart fails to pump enough blood to all parts of the body. Common causes are: electric shock, heart attack and heart injury. Diseases such as low blood pressure and ankle swelling, if left untreated, can cause enough damage to cause a heart attack.
It is also known as ‘nervous shock’. The result is a failure of the nervous system to control the diameter of the blood vessels. Blood vessels dilate beyond the point where existing blood can fill with new volume. The blood no longer fills the system adequately, but pools the blood vessels in certain areas of the body.
This type of trauma is usually caused by a paralysis of the spinal cord or brain. Severe blows to the abdomen disrupt the nerves and cause nerve trauma.
It is also known as ‘lung concussion’. The result is that the lungs fail to supply enough oxygen to circulate to the tissues. Watch out for ribs or sternum fractures, deep chest injuries, neck / spinal cord injuries, or airway obstruction.
Also known as ‘body fluid shock’. It can occur in severe diarrhea, vomiting or polyuria (excessive urination). These conditions cause fluid loss from the bloodstream.
It is also known as ‘allergic shock’. This is a life-threatening reaction to an allergen (something that the person is extremely allergic to).
Symptoms and signs
The most important symptom of trauma is:
Other symptoms may include:
- Management Nausea
- Management Thirst
- Anxiety and fear
Signs to pay attention to are:
- Excessive (external) bleeding
- Management Vomiting
- Fainting / Lack of ability to respond
- Fast and weak pulse
- Fast and shallow breathing
- Signs of low blood pressure (less than 90/60, or less)
- Pale, moist and cool skin. Often sweating profusely
- Blurred eyes, wide pupils
- General restlessness
As soon as a serious injury occurs (for example) the victim may appear tough and resistant, but in him, it is important to remember that the trauma machines are activated. It may take a few minutes or hours before he shows normal signs.
First aid for trauma
A traumatized person should seek immediate medical attention. Meanwhile:
- Ensure adequate breathing by properly positioning his head (if the person is breathing). If he does not breathe, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
- Control bleeding. Direct pressure on the injured area is a quick and efficient way to do this. Do not waste time hunting for a suit – use a finger or hand directly on the wound, maintaining pressure until the bleeding stops. (Even if you contaminate the wound, the risk of uncontrolled bleeding is much higher than a possible infection.
- Keep the patient warm. The goal is to keep his body temperature as close to normal as possible. If possible, remove wet clothing, and wrap the patient loosely in a blanket or overcoat. But do not let the patient overheat: the extra heat can draw a large volume of blood from the depths of the body to the surface of the skin, which is essential for the vital organs of life. Patients with head / neck / spine injuries should not move to place a blanket under them.
- Ensure rest and location. Treat where the patient is (unless you are in a danger zone – fire, smoke, collapsing building, etc.) The more a trauma patient is at rest, the greater his chances of survival. Avoid rough or excessive handling as body movement has a tendency to exacerbate trauma. In particular, be careful when carrying a patient with a fracture – especially if it involves his back. If there are serious injuries to the extremities, keep the patient flat on his back. If the patient is conscious, but appears to be breathing or having a heart attack, he may feel more comfortable (and more comfortable breathing) in a semi-inclined position with his head slightly raised.
- Do not give anything by mouth. Do not give food / medicine or even tea or coffee by mouth. The patient may vomit, and at that moment anything he brings in may enter his airway and suffocate him.
- Assure the patient. Reducing mental anxiety plays a big role in relieving trauma. Talk to the patient calmly and confidently, and explain your actions as comfortably as possible. Tactically but firmly remove any disturbing or discouraging visitors.
Finally, keep in mind that in cases where the trauma may change (such as significant bleeding), it is advisable to perform all of the above steps, even if the patient’s condition appears to be fairly stable. Final point: When in doubt, treat for trauma.